Test preparation for review before the test describe the following terms/items: What makes the kidney a retroperitoneal organ? What produces renin

Test preparation for review before the test

describe the following terms/items:

·      What makes the kidney a retroperitoneal organ?

·      What produces renin and why? This will be part of the renin angiotensin… mechanism below

·      As we go through lecture we will be discussing the three fluids: blood, filtrate & urine. Know where these are found and connect the fluids to the correct structures.  In other words, as you define processes or follow flow, make sure you know what fluid(s) is involved.

·      Where is blood filtered to make filtrate?

·      What is a UTI

·      What is a metabolic waste? Identify the three main metabolic wastes.

·      What is BUN and what does it stand for? 

o   What are the normal values of BUN?

o   What BUN defines azotemia?

o   Describe  uremia

·      Define glomerular filtration – pay attention to where the fluids are coming from and going to.

o   How often/how many times per day is the body’s blood volume filtered? 

o   There is a diagram of the juxtaglomerular apparatus at the end of this sheet.  Use it to help you understand glomerular filtration.

o   What materials become the filtrate and what is left behind in the blood ?

o   What may occur if there is damage in the filtration membrane?

§  Describe proteinuria and hematuria

·      Define glomerular filtration rate

o   How much filtrate is formed per day?

o   What happens if GFR is too high?

o    What happens if GFR is too low?

o   Describe the juxtaglomerular apparatus.   How do the kidneys auto-regulate their own pressure and flow rate? SEE DIAGRAMS BELOW – you will NOT be asked to label them, but you need to understand what is going on.

§  Compare afferent and efferent tubule – what relationship will increase GFR

§  Compare afferent and efferent tubule – what relationship will decrease GFR

o   How does the sympathetic nervous system regulate the kidney under stress? Will GFR decrease or increase?

o   The labelled diagram for the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism will be on the exam.  I will however, erase the part that says “Elevated blood pressure” at the bottom.  You should be able to talk through this mechanism.

o   How does the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Mechanism work? Describe the three steps to getting to Angiotensin II.

§  Describe the 5 items that Angiotensin II causes.

§  Does this mechanism occur with Increasing or decreasing systemic BP? What is the end result on systemic BP of this mechanism?

§  Who might take an ACE inhibiter and why?

·      Define Tubular Reabsorption

o   Describe the peritubular capillary bed.  What kind of capillary is it? Why is it under slightly lower pressure.

o   In what direction will materials move? (into the blood in the peritubular capillary or into the filtrate in the renal tubule?)

o   How much of the organic substances are reabsorbed? Describe glycosuria and proteinuria

·      Define Tubular Secretion

o   In what direction will materials move? (into the blood in the peritubular capillary or into the filtrate in the renal tubule?)

o   What kinds of materials are secreted? Why?

o   What is produced as the endproduct?  Where is it excreted to? (you need to go back to the anatomy section to answer this)

·      Describe concentrated urine?  What hormones are not present?  Think of some times/activities when you might produce concentrated urine.

·      Describe dilute urine? What hormones are present?  What does it prevent? Think of some times/activities when you might produce dilute urine.

·      Describe the chemical constituents of urine.

·      What causes : glycosuria, proteinuria, ketonuria, hemoglobinuria, bilirubinuria, hematuria, pyuria These will be in a matching section – all other definitions and diseases/disorders will be in that section as well.

·      Define diuretic. Name substances that are diuretics.

·      What is renal clearance?

·      How much urine is typically produced? 

·      Describe renal failure & dialysis.

·      What is a kidney stone?

·      What is Micturition?

o   What muscles are involved? Identify whether each is stimulated to contract or inhibited to relax.

·      What happens when ~200 mL are collected in the urinary bladder? What if you do not micturate?

·      What happens when ~200 mL MORE are collected in the urinary bladder? What if you do not micturate?

·      What happens when ~500-600 mL are collected in the urinary bladder? 

·      Describe incontinence & urinary retention.







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