Question: 3. Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding carbohydrate structure and function?


3. Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding carbohydrate structure and function?

Carbohydrates are a source of fiber in the diet.

Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Carbohydrates contain 9 kcal per gram.

Carbohydrates are composed of one or more sugar units.

Carbohydrate consumption reduces the use of protein for energy.

5.An oligosaccharide is a:

polysaccharide made up of numerous glucose units.

short-chain carbohydrate.

carbohydrate that consists of one sugar molecule.

long-chain carbohydrate.

polysaccharide made up of glycogen.

6. Which of the following foods contains the MOST grams of carbohydrates?

oatmeal, 1/2 cup

black beans, 1/4 cup

corn, 1/2 cup

raisins, 1/2 cup

yogurt (plain, low fat), 1 cup

7.Which portion of the whole grain contains the majority of dietary fiber and a significant amount of B vitamins and minerals?






8. In the small intestine, pancreatic amylase continues to break down starch, converting it to


salivary amylase.



maltose and oligosaccharides.

9.Which stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin?

elevated glycogen in the liver

decreased blood glucose


elevated blood glucose

elevated ketone bodies in the blood

10.Insulin promotes conversion of excess glucose to glycogen in the:

skeletal and cardiac muscles only.

liver and adipose tissue.

brain, muscles, and liver.

liver, adipose tissue, and kidneys.

liver and skeletal muscles.


is triggered by an autoimmune disorder.

can be reversed by early lifestyle intervention.

can be managed, but not cured.

is diagnosed by the onset of ketoacidosis.

is due to loss of the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin.

Which is NOT a risk factor for type 2 diabetes?





poor nutrition

Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes results in higher risk of all of the following, EXCEPT:

autoimmune disorders.

kidney failure.

cardiovascular disease.


limb amputations.

14. The oral glucose tolerance test includes the intake of:

75 g lactose and measured blood glucose levels 2 hours later.

50 g white bread and measured blood glucose levels 1 hour later.

50 g lactose and measured blood glucose levels 1 hour later.

50 g glucose and measured blood glucose levels 1 hour later.

75 g glucose and measured blood glucose levels 2 hours later.

Which is NOT true about gestational diabetes?

It increases the mother’s future risk of type 1 diabetes.

It increases the infant’s future risk of obesity.

It causes pregnancy complications.

It increases the infant’s future risk of type 2 diabetes.

It resolves shortly after the woman gives birth.

Which of these clinical tests enables type 1 diabetes to be distinguished from type 2 diabetes?

lower insulin levels

higher ketone bodies in the blood

higher fasting blood glucose levels

higher glucose levels in the urine

higher oral glucose tolerance test values

17. Which changes in the urine are possible signs of diabetes?

increased volume and ketone bodies

increased acidity and ketone bodies

increased volume and darker color

increased mineral content

increased glucose and ketone bodies

18. Which oil provides the most alpha-linolenic acid?

corn oil

coconut oil

flaxseed oil

olive oil

fish oil

19. Which food combination does NOT contain cholesterol?

peanut butter and jelly sandwich

cereal and milk

cheese and macaroni

fish and French fries

ice cream sundae topped with nuts

20. You are purchasing a spread and want to avoid trans fatty acids. Which would you avoid since it is the most likely to contain trans fatty acids?

olive oil

partially hydrogenated vegetable oil


fully hydrogenated vegetable oil


21. Which CORRECTLY lists the lipoproteins from the least to most dense?

chylomicron, VLDL, LDL, HDL

HDL, chylomicron, VLDL, LDL

HDL, LDL, VLDL, chylomicron

VLDL, LDL, HDL, chylomicron

VLDL, LDL, chylomicron, HDL

In the small intestines triglycerides are absorbed as:


monoglycerides and free fatty acids.


LDL and HDL.

micelles and chylomicrons.

23. Linoleic acid can be metabolized in the body:

into bile acids to be stored in the gallbladder.

to be stored as cholesterol.

into long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

into arachidonic acid and eicosanoids.

into EPA, DHA, and eicosanoids.

24. Cardiovascular disease is defined as:

a group of conditions that impairs the heart and blood vessels.

fat deposits that accumulate on the lining of the arteries causing damage.

elevated cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, and decreased HDL.

decreased blood flow to the coronary arteries resulting in a heart attack.

hardening and narrowing of the blood vessels due to plaque development.

25. Which foods are BEST for reducing inflammation and atherosclerosis?

peanuts and cashews

red wine and other alcoholic beverages

olive oil and coconut oil

phytochemicals and dietary fiber

fatty fish and seafood

Nuts are considered “heart healthy” for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT:

they are low in calories.

they are a rich source of phytochemicals.

they are a rich source of antioxidant vitamins.

they are rich in unsaturated fatty acids.

they do not contain cholesterol.

The patient showing a blockage of blood vessels to the brain may be at high risk of:


Alzheimer disease.

cerebral stroke.


myocardial infarction.

28. An epidemiology study investigating cardiovascular disease development in childhood in biracial populations is known as the:

stroke belt.

Seven Countries Study.

Bogalusa Study.

Framingham Heart Study.

Nurses’ Health Study.

29. A female patient with total cholesterol 200 mg/dl, LDL 150 mg/dl, HDL 45 mg/dl, and glucose 98 mg/dl would:

have hypertension.

be at risk of hemorrhaging.

be at risk of dementia.

have metabolic syndrome.

be at risk of cardiovascular disease.

30. All of the following dietary changes reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, EXCEPT:

increasing plant sterol and stanol intake.

replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fatty acids.

increasing the omega-6 to omega-3 ratio.

increasing fatty fish and fish oil intake.

lowering trans fats to less than 1% of total calories.

31. A patient with low protein intake has frequent illness and infections. You suspect this may be due to not enough protein:

for proper blood pH balance.

for tissue fluid balance.

for hormone regulation.

for antibody synthesis.

to support wound healing.

32. Which individual does NOT require higher than the recommended 0.8 g per kg of body weight per day protein intake?

a pregnant woman

an endurance and strength athlete

a patient with a burn injury

a middle-age individual starting a fitness program

an elderly individual with muscle atrophy

33. Which substance is NOT involved in protein digestion?


amino acid

pancreatic proteases

salivary proteases

hydrochloric acid

34. The processes by which proteins are continuously broken down and resynthesized is known as protein:






35. Amino acids differ based on their:

central carbon location.

side chain.

amino group.

number of hydrogen groups.

peptide bonds.

36. Which contributes high-quality protein with the lowest saturated fat content?

grilled salmon

American cheese

whole boiled egg

skinless baked chicken breast

ground beef

37. Which list contains a food that a vegan would NOT consume?

legumes, wild rice, mashed potatoes

corn, margarine, pasta with tomato sauce

peanut butter, white bread, soy milk

soft drink, French fries, chips

honey, chopped nuts, berries

38. A person who excludes red meats, but includes poultry and fish in their diet is considered a:




lacto-ovo vegetarian.


39. Olive oil and mixed nuts in the Mediterranean diet result in high:

monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acid intake.

omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake.

omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) intake.

partially hydrogenated oil intake.

linoleic acid intake.

40. At what stages of cancer is a plant-based diet MOST likely to be effective?

initiation and promotion

initiation and invasion

progression and metastasis

invasion and progression

invasion and metastasis

41. Eating a plant-based diet consisting of fruits and nonstarchy vegetables probably protects against:

colon, breast, and prostate cancer.

kidney cancer.

mouth, stomach, and lung cancer.

pancreatic cancer.

liver and gallbladder cancer.

42. Which phytochemical has been reported to reduce the risk of prostate cancer?






43. Which are more bioavailable in plant foods than in animal foods?

calcium and iron

zinc and riboflavin

vitamin C and E

retinoids and thiamin

vitamin D and cholesterol

44. Vegan may increase non-heme iron absorption by consuming it with:

soy protein or legumes.

vegetable oil.

fat-soluble vitamins.

antioxidant vitamins.

orange juice.

45. Which statement is NOT true about the Mediterranean diet’s effects on health?

The Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease.

The Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease.

The Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of celiac disease.

The Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of diabetes.

The Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of cancer.

46. Within which component of the whole grain are most of the beneficial nutrients and phytochemicals found?


seed and grain

wheat kernel


bran and germ

47. _____ are carbohydrates that consist of only one sugar molecule, while _____ consist of exactly two sugar molecules.

Monosaccharides; disaccharides

Monosaccharides; polysaccharides

Disaccharides; polysaccharides

Disaccharides; oligosaccharide

Polysaccharides; oligosaccharide

48. Which combination provides an example of protein complementation?

eggs and whole grain toast

pasta and bread sticks

rice and mashed potatoes

tossed salad with cranberries

peanut butter sandwich

49. Pancreatic proteases in the small intestines break polypeptides into:

amino acids.

peptide fragments.

transport proteins.



50. What is the role of the kidneys in preventing increased blood ammonia with high protein intake?

filtering of blood and excretion of urea in the urine

neutralization of uric acid to urea followed by excretion in the urine

excretion of ammonia and extra protein in the urine

conversion to urea and excretion in urine

conversion to uric acid and excretion in the urine

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