Option #1: Elements of Effective Organizations For this Portfolio Project option, your well-written paper will analyze the elements of effective organizations. Your paper should address the following: 1

Effective Organization


Institutional Affiliation:


Elements of Effective Organizations

There are very many ways of running an organization as well as various models used.

However, for a great organization, clarity leads to excellent results. In as much as many

aspects are pointing to a great organization, there have to be clear lines as well as boundaries

put to know bounds that the organization can take and those which are not allowed (Ellena,


What is known as the ‘secret formulas’ are just areas where more consideration is put.

Instead of the CEO listening to everyone’s opinion on the brand and the company, the whole

flow of information and communication would be chaotic and most probably will not lead to

any results. A board is selected and put in place for this reason. This specific group of people

is allowed to speak on behalf of all the members of the organization and give them results

after discussions. They are also responsible for directing the organization in alignment to its

mission and vision. Direction also means the way the organization performs and in planning

for its future. The organization compares their results to the intended outputs, or objective.

In many cases, the performance of an organization involves the operational, finance,

strategic planners and the legal departments. Another ingredient is making sure the

organization is protected, and things done in an orderly manner with the interest of the

owners in mind. Another reason for the protection of the organization is making sure things

are done properly, and a system of checks and balance put in place.

The reason for this boundary is to provide guidance and clear parameters. The board

is in charge of the strategic planning concerning the organization (McLaughlin & Jordan,

2010). There is a particular person through whom all information goes through regarding the

organization’s operations. It is their job to explain and provide an understanding of the

various issues facing the organization. With clear communication, people are less confused.

But this mediator needs some help. When the staffs receive insight regarding the company,

many may be at a loss. The CEO then stands in on behalf of the people, as well as the board.

This chain needs to and usually is improved because of the customers.

In the end, organizational effectiveness is a vital part of the business’s efficiency.

Also, the quality of service has to be considered as the professional must emphasis on

evaluating customer needs. Otherwise, they will look for other alternatives.

An efficient and competent organizational structure can make the organization grow,

in a way that management becomes more natural. An effective structure makes

communication consistent in the organization, which encourages company cohesiveness and

employee morale boosted as well. But for this to become possible, there some elements that

have to be considered for an effective structure in an organization.

First, those in a particular organization are there for a specific role, and they have

activities they ought to carry out within the organization. Job design is an essential aspect as

an organization cannot operates without the element of the job or work it does. Included in

the job design are the activities to be undertaken, clearly defined and elaborated. The content

of the position needs to be outlined as well as the expected results (Ellena, 1964).

Secondly, when established leadership and organizational roles are identified, the

structure needs to be developed to know who reports to whom, and who is under who. What

is taken into consideration is an employee’s skills as well as their qualifications. After this, it

becomes less confusing to the staff themselves as well as the customers. An example is the

HR director reporting to the CEO (Richard, 2009). It could be logical suppose they said to the

legal counsel but only if the committee is qualified to manage and handle related strategies

and operations

The third is work specialization, which plays a vital role in an effective organization’s

structure. Work specialization refers to the dividing of jobs into subtasks, in an organization.

One employee who is skilled in the essential role performs each category. Doing these

individual tasks, an employee gains specific knowledge within a particular field. As an

employee becomes an expert and quick at the subtask, they tend to be more effective and

productive, thus speeding up the work process. An employee will make fewer mistakes or

none as they become better at their role (Richard, 2009).

Work specialization also saves on time and is cost effective. Training employees on a

specific task is relatively cheap. When compared to multi-teaching when it comes to a

specific group of employees, it is better and less on costs to just teach and train a handful of

employees on a particular task. But this does not only mean an employee should be trained on

a specific job. Instead, an employee can get educated on what they do best. An organization

can allocate tasks to a person based on their abilities. Such an approach will save time and

money, enhance employee efficiency and productivity. Time is saved when an employee does

their best in an activity they like and can handle, unlike when an employer gives the

employee multiple tasks in which he is not sure what the employee will manage best or which

one he won’t handle (Robert & David, 2008).

Another aspect of an effective organizational structure is departmentalization. Just

because an organization has its various departments and the roles delegated in these

departments does not mean that the staff are collaborated or coordinated. The type of the

organization and the degree of departmental communication engagement, structures this

aspect of the organizational structure. It should be clear who in the department plays what

role and what their job is (McLaughlin & Jordan, 2010). It becomes evident that one from

financing should not be given work from a department as operations. Similar jobs and related

activities should all be placed under one umbrella in a department.

Finally, there is authority delegation. It does not make sense when people have similar

authoritative roles or when they have different ones. When there are many people, checks and

balances have to be put in place so that the Directing Manager does not have similar tasks as

the CEO. Roles should be shared but in a manner that shows hierarchy. The CEO will have

his positions, though the subordinates come in to help him get the work done once he shares

his authority to those below him.

Business globalization can change, improve or make extinct a business or an

organization. Advances in technology have made the growth of communication and transport

very easy. Transfer of goods and information has taken place in a less complicated way and

very quickly. An example is when a country, let’s call it Country A, produces TV’s and have

a competitor, Company B, who also sell TVs. Company C, because of globalization, will

have different means by which they produce their products and will look for a way to sell

these TV sets to Company B, but at a lower price. Company A will have either to stand and

react to the competition or face extinction.

Business globalization will influence a company’s production, development,

purchasing of goods and services, marketing its products, the Human Resource department as

well as finance. More products become available as well as knowledge and cultures are

transferred from one place to another. They are closely linked and when combined are of

benefit to the organization (Robert & David, 2008).

Communication is used to communicate strategy and helps reach project goals and

objectives. Content needs to be clear and simple and the right ways of communicating used.

Communication is two-way, and feedback will impact the effectiveness of the strategy. The

burden of effective communication lies on the person giving the information instead of the


Content must be suitable for those involved and should be delivered in the right

format, though communication channels will be different as according to stakeholder

requirement. They include email, newsletters, social media or videos, which are all useful in

conveying a message. It is just about choosing which one is the right one. Feedback is a vital

part in communication and will come in various forms as group discussions, quizzes or an

individual wanting to. Input is maximized from feedback gotten and through the

communication process.

The communication team will examine the input and change content as per context, if

necessary. Implementation and delivery are usually time-bound and done by a dedicated

team. They make sure the stakeholder well receives the content. Short-term plans, as well as

long term, should be communicated and celebrated while still having the focus on the

employee or shareholder interest in consideration. The results of effective communication

and the strategy used include better outcomes and strategy execution, which will eventually

lead to success.

People in the workplace need to be managed effectively just like in a school.

Specialization is an example. The employees specialize in the task they can do best. In most

cases, they become experts. Division of labor needs to be efficient. With time, it becomes of

better quality as it becomes more natural for them to undertake this task. It has a disadvantage

to it in that with time repetition makes the job boring and demotivating. This strategy makes

it easier to manage and control people. Using the various departments, analysis of the

different critical organizational processes and that in charge of the activities becomes more

comfortable to handle (McLaughlin & Jordan, 2010).

Unity of direction means that all staff follows the same plan and has the same goals.

The reason why this needs to be established is to avoid conflicting goal as well as to make

sure employee interests and visions are aligned. The organization has got a mission, meaning

that all employees have the same goals. Unity of command is essential in managing people as

they take command from only one person. This principle makes it clear as to who should

report to whom, to avoid opposing authorities.

A manager needs to be surrounded by high-quality employees as they play a

significant role in determining the success of the organization. The added ‘burden’ here will

be to train them to get them up to speed as quickly as possible.

Communication is another crucial factor. It involves communicating the desired results.

Listening to employees is part of the discussion process. By having an ‘open door’ policy,

employees can help uncover problems faster as well as come up with intended suggestions

that could make the business or organization more effective. Another level of communication

is praising the employee.

Managing employees differently for managers is essential as different people learn in

different ways and at different paces and the reason is they have different capabilities and


Decisions are either programmed or non-programmed. Managers confront a

requirement in a problem or opportunity. The process of decision-making includes

recognizing the decision requirements and analysis of the causes, coming up with alternatives

and selecting one from the other options as well as evaluation and feedback is essential. A

problem, in this case, is when an organizational accomplishment is below what they had

established as a goal, meaning that some aspects of company performance are unsatisfactory

(Robert & David, 2008). Next step is diagnosis and analysis of the situation, which ought to

be refined. Managers find the underlying causal factor linked with the decision. The other

level is to come up with alternatives. The solutions should respond to the needs of the

situation and address the underlying cause. Options in decisions can be seen as tools for

reducing the variations between the current and the intended performance. After the

development of an alternative, the most suitable one has to be selected. Managers choose one

that seems promising and one that suits the organization’s overall goals while achieving the

desired results using the least amount of resources. The one with the least amount of risk is

also considered (McLaughlin & Jordan, 2010).

After selecting the alternative, it is implemented but for it to succeed it needs to be

translated into action. Sometimes other options fail to actualize the chosen opportunity. The

process requires some discussions, trust built and the people affected engaging in this

alternative implementation. Communication, motivation and leadership should be used to

make sure the execution is carried out. Follow up on decisions by managers concerning the

success of the application makes them more motivated and committed to positive outcomes.

The evaluation and feedback process is the lasts stage. Decision-makers get information that

tells how well the decision was implemented and whether it was effective in achieving its


As for problem solving, it is identifying the issue, which is the first step. In knowing

the interests of those involved, a boundary is established between an issue and a stake. The

best solution, however, is one that satisfies everybody’s interests. Listing possible solutions is

another step which requires brainstorming. This is followed by evaluating the options

provided (McLaughlin & Jordan, 2010). A manager will consider the pros and the cons to the

possibilities before deciding on one or more. Documenting the agreements will make

remembering the details and implications easier. But the problem-solving is not over until an

agreement has been made on the monitoring and evaluation of the options chosen.

Transformational leadership as an approach to organizational effectiveness has proved

successful in many ways. Transformation leadership is a leadership style where leaders and

subordinates work together to identify and bring about change in an organization. Together,

they create the vision that guides the difference, and execute the move as committed

members. When this interaction is seen from a superior, employee motivation and moral are

boosted, thus improving their performance. Through mechanisms as giving them a sense of

identity and to the collective identity of the organization, they get inspired and their interests

piqued in the organization. As they feel connected to a whole and their opinions heard, there

is greater ownership. Transformation leadership becomes evident when followers compete

healthily in advancing in levels of motivation and morality. Transformational leaders inspire

followers through the strengths of their vision and character. Other approaches do not have

the give-and-take aspect as this one has and especially not from the superiors.

Organizational leaders work towards the benefit of the team as well as the

organization or a community (McLaughlin & Jordan, 2010). These leaders gain trust and

respect from their subordinates. They offer more than just working to achieve for oneself, but

they provide their staff with an inspiring mission and objective while giving them an identity.

They encourage the team to come up with new and unique ways to challenge the ordinary and

to become successful.


Ellena, A. (1964). Modern Organizations. 20(2), 249-253.

McLaughlin, A., & Jordan, T. (2010). Using Logic Models. 12(3), 226 – 230

Mitchell, G. (2012). The Construct of Organizational Effectiveness: Perspectives from

Leaders of International Nonprofits in the United States. 19(6), 319-325

Richard, W. (2009). Measuring Organizational Performance: Towards Methodological Best

Practice. Journal of Management. 10(4), 24-29.

Robert, D., & David, Y. (2008). Advancing Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness

Research and Theory. 18(4), 399-415.

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