Important point: 75 points for 750 words: includes both parts: evaluation and proposal. I have added an updated Behavior Change form (see below). SIMPLIFICATION: Select a chapter in the text which may






Human Personality

Personality is what makes us who we are, and we are all different. Even twins have different

characters. Personality, therefore, is the behavior, emotions, and attitude that describe an

individual. Though we cannot use one word to describe a person, in fact, the various qualities

make our personality.

There are different approaches to personality. Among them are the big 5 factors as openness,

extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (Ross, 170). In

Psychoanalytic, we need to link Sigmund Freud with psychoanalysis. He believed the

unconscious was the primary focus. He used to specialize in the disorder of the nervous

system, and he saw patients suffer from nervous disorders without any physical cause and

therefore decided the reason must be inside the mind. He uses the iceberg illustration where

only 10% of the ice is visible. Childhood experiences also play a role in shaping a person.

Humanistic psychology has the belief that people are innately good and that we all try to do

right and be good in the beginning (Tajfel, 90). It also focuses on human freedom and

uniqueness. The cognitive aspect deals with how people think and how they remember things

and information. According to this perspective, humans are active in their environments and

use mental processes to transform as well as better understand information and data. The

evolutionary approach focuses on how human behavior needed for survival have had to adapt

and undergo evolution and face environmental pressure. Bio-psychological approach deals

with mental processes and behavior. It focuses more on functions like eating and emotions as

well as hormones and brain chemicals (Rudman, 633).

Galen formulated the personality type concept based on human reason. The four

temperaments he describes are sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic and choleric. According to

him, the mind follows the body‘s temperature.

Eysencks focused on traits. Traits are broad behavioral elements that define who you are,

such as being calm or easygoing. He describes the personality as a hierarchy of attributes.

The top consists of the higher order traits, which are broader characteristics, which determine

our lower order traits. According to him, personality traits are inherited. He also focused on

two features, extroversion and introversion, and emotional stability versus neuroticism

(Tajfel, 90).

Freud’s definition of unconsciousness is a vast reservoir of often unacceptable and frequently

hard-to-tolerate thoughts, feelings, thoughts and desires as well as memories. He believed

that our personalities were shaped in an enduring conflict between our impulse wanting to do

whatever it feels like and our restraint when it comes to holding these urges. He theorized the

mind to being divided into three parts – the ID, the ego and superego. It could also be likened

to an iceberg that has only the conscious level visible when the preconscious and unconscious

are those hidden under the water. I will use a personal example that made me understand

toddlers better given their personalities and characteristics. Their id does not know time or

patience because it wants what it wants, at that particular time. But the ego tries making sense

of the requirements, and on a conscious level deals with reality. Superego, on the other hand,

represents the real and the ideal. We could think of the ego as a referee between the stubborn

ID and the superego (Rudman, 633)

We went shopping with this toddler who started right at the entrance that she wants this and

that. But telling her we will get them we were done did not seem to make sense. ID kicks in,

and she throws a tantrum in the store. I had never seen her behave this way mostly because

we stayed home. And when I did not know what to do with her wailing and crying, I decided

to appeal to her ego. I showed her a dollar bill and told her it was hers, but only if she

behaved. The superego suddenly stirred back to life, and she realized that indeed she could

get the candy just after we were done. Her unconscious information of needing instant

gratification affected the way she behaved unintentionally.

By using this knowledge every day, learning how to deal with different personalities enables

me to better deal with the person without getting carried away. As a volunteer reporter,

people have different wants and needs, and they all want to be heard, but it is up to me to

know how to get through to them.

Works Cited

Ross, L. The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortions in the attribution

process. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology’. 12:2, (2007): p. 178 – 210

Rudman, A. Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and benefits of Counter-

stereotypical impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 73:4,

(2009): p. 630 – 635

Tajfel, L. Social identity and Intergroup Behavior. 13(2),(1974): p. 65–93

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