Here is what the rubric for the essay included. The Topic I am doing is Presсrіption Drug addiction. It has to be APA style, and this professor is VERY strict about essay level, paragraph level, and s

Part 1

The chosen topic sheds light on prescription drugs, addiction and those it affects and

its effects. Misuse of prescribed medications means taking them other than as was prescribed,

taking somebody’s prescription or taking them for euphoria. Most abused drugs include

opioids for pain management, Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants for anxiety or

sleep disorders and stimulants used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Prescription drug misuse is a serious problem affecting the health sector in the United

States. According to a study done by National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH),

close to 2 million people misused pain relievers for the first time, at least once during the year

2017. This alone translates to close to 5,500 initiates daily. Additionally, in as much as there

are demographical factors as age and gender, the ease of their access is the reason for their

high prevalence. Prescription for some of these drugs has increased, and the lack of

information on their addictive properties has led to their high demand and has contributed

further to the problem.

Prescription drug misuse and addiction affects many people, but a specific

demographic as the teens and youth, are at a higher risk. By the time a person finds out that

they have been doing it very frequently, addiction has kicked in by this time and stopping

becomes hard no matter how bad someone wants to quit. As these prescription drugs reach

schools, hospitals, and workplaces, everybody is affected. The most affected are teenage girls

and boy who are at a critical stage in their lives. Peer pressure plays a significant part in

making them want to try and get addicted to these drugs. Those who benefit from this are

dishonest pharmacists and medical practitioners, drug dealers and those distributing drugs, as

they make money selling and distributing stolen or fake drugs.

Part 2

Prescription drug addiction remains a major health epidemic in the US. Close to 50

Americans die daily due to the effects of drug addiction, and if not, they feel the effects

physically and financially. Overdose deaths involving these prescription drugs have

quadrupled to 17,000 since the ’90s. By outnumbering the number of deaths caused by heroin

and cocaine combined, only one in ten American’s get treatment. Being the number one

cause of injury-related deaths and surpassing car accidents, a solution has to be sought to end

this (Sipe, 2015). In as much as human health and wellbeing are unprotected, the drug

markets are still expanding. With this comes its fair share of problems as some countries

growing these parent plants make the production of these drugs shoot to highs never recorded

before. Opium production shot to 11,000 tons from a 65% productivity level during the start

of the 21st Century. It has led to a significant increase in the opium poppy production, which

is promising, and gradually improving, likely leading to trafficking of these drugs.

Additionally, the seizure of pharmaceutical medication showed that they did not pass

their manufacturing requirements and their poor quality caused considerable health problems.

Their accessibility and given the demographics of those taking these drugs make the

traffickers better placed at selling them at these illegal markets and making a killing from


That being said the countries affected loose lives to crimes and acts of violence

related to these drug activities. If a user will not use force and brutality to get the money

needed to purchase these drugs they will use violence to get these drugs. Drug users become

unstable and may commit crimes from misusing or being addicted to them.

That notwithstanding, addiction may lead to adverse health effects and increases in

every use and its frequency. Most people, however, do not realize the effects this has on them

until it is too late. The misuse of these legal drugs can cause psychosis, suicide, violence and

drug-related accidents or overdoses.

Prescription drug abuse goes back to more than a decade ago (Dowling, 2008).

Laudanum, a mixture of alcohol and opium was the earliest remedy to pain, anxiety, and

insomnia. Though used by doctors in the 1800s, it was addictive. But it attracted more

Caucasian women as men freely visited the bars and drinking dens. Its availability was not

the only things that had the users captivated, but its ability to solve a range of feminine

problems as issues in pregnancy, menstrual cramps and emotional disorders.

Part 3

Results gotten from an NSDUH study, a total of 2.4 million Americans abused

prescription drugs for their first time, translating to 6,600 people per day with more than one-

half being female of 12 to 18 years. Though these drugs affect many people, it is considered

that most males and females, the youth and the older adults are a higher risk of drug abuse.

12the Graders (NSDUH, 2017) most commonly abuse prescription and Over the

Counter (OTC) drugs. When they were asked how they obtained these drugs for non-medical

use, more than half reported having been given or bought from a friend or relative. Young

adults are also at risk, accounting to close two-thirds of the total spending on prescription

drugs. As most are on a fixed income, they may use another person’s medication to save on

money. Generally, males are more prone to abusing and getting addicted to prescription drugs

compared to females.

Among other factors, drugs being readily available and the lack of information

concerning addiction makes these drugs easily accessible. 

It also affects the teens because they are curious at this stage and given that friends or

relatives have them, they become more prone to the effects of drug addiction (Sera, 2017).

Also, they face pressures from school, parents, and teachers and need some form of release

and therefore turn to these drugs, As for the young adults, the use of various medication for

their comorbidity makes them prone to want to use these drugs to ease everyday issues rather

than high-profile cases. It affects them financially when they have to set aside some money

for drugs. If they have families, then they will suffer. The breadwinner will use the money to

buy these drugs. By having a significant impact on those in school, studies are disrupted as

users cannot fully concentrate when high or under the influence of such drugs.

For users, their wellbeing is compromised as the long-term treatment does not only

lead to addiction but other issues as drug tolerance, the need to increase drug doses and

hyperalgesia which is an increase in pain sensitivity. There are cases of seizures and organ

failure. Behavioral changes as a decline in activities are signs of abuse and addiction. Others

find that their social status improves given that they sell drugs.

Part 4

As some prescription drugs are considered as dangerous as illegal drugs, people are

benefiting from the sale of these drugs. Some fraudulent doctor and pharmacist may be acting

with some drug dealer and may either steal or sell fake prescriptions. Others do not have

licenses to write prescriptions, and this becomes illegal when they sell or distribute these

drugs. For malpractices as these, laws are regulating the use and delivery of prescription

drugs. Economically, they make profits from all the users, and the demand drives the

productions higher. With the money gotten or services rendered in exchange, they may use

this to gain power or raise their status. They might as well want the problem to continue as

they earn from the sale of these drugs. Unchecked, trafficking drugs could be an ultimate

result. At times, some of these people work with politicians to get access to these drugs. They

can make this problem continue by causing the decline of these drugs in pharmacies and

secure access to their inferior quality products available and sell them at a higher price. From

another perspective, the problem might exist on purpose for those in power to exercise their

freedom to oppress the people. By making these substandard drugs, they make money for

themselves and other ‘investors and they also benefit, creating the ever existing dependence

on these drugs.

Part 5:

This problem affects everyone in society. The users experience effects related to long-

term use of prescription drugs as psychosis and suicidal tendencies while those selling these

drugs are enriched. The biggest victims are women, between 12 to 35 years of age who at

times work in health sectors and those who have easy access to these drugs. With the

increasing need for these drugs and the clients being readily available, what is interesting is in

getting them from reliable sources including pharmacists or distributors. This continuous

interdependency ensures the supply of the drug never runs out in the markets.


Dowling, P. (2018). Drugs of abuse and the aging brain. Neuropsycho-pharmacology, 33(2):


Serra W. (2017). A possible role for the endocannabinoid system in the neurobiology of

depression; 3(25):1–11.

Sipe E. (2015). Reduced endocannabinoid immune modulation by a common cannabinoid 2

(CB2); 78: 231–238

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