Exam II -Reading Passage APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY Psychologists use many theoretical approaches in their attempts to understand why an individual or

Exam II -Reading Passage APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY Psychologists use many theoretical approaches in their attempts to understand why an individual or a certain group of people behave or respond as they do. Among the most significant approaches in psychology today are those known as the biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, humanistic, and cognitive approaches. The biological approach places special emphasis on the electrical and chemical activity of the brain and on the actions of the hormones. This approach tries to explain people’s behaviors, emotions, mental disorders, and memory on the basis of what happens biologically within a person. Wilhelm Wundt was one of the early psychologists who used the biological approach to understanding people. Sigmund Freud created a theory to explain mental disorders and personality. This theory also led to a form of therapy called psychoanalysis. This psychodynamic approach holds that all behavior and mental processes reflect constant and often unconscious struggles within each person. These struggles usually involve conflicts between the impulse to satisfy instincts or wishes and the restrictions imposed on the individual by society. John Watson urged psychologists to study what they could directly observe. He encouraged psychologists not to rely on people’s thoughts or feelings, which could be easily distorted. This behavioral approach assumes that behaviors grow out of patterns of rewards and punishments. Experiences mold individuals. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, both well-known psychologists, believed that people are not controlled by instincts, biological factors, or rewards and punishments. People control themselves. According to this humanistic approach, each person has an innate tendency to grow toward his or her own potential and chooses how to think and act based on his or her perception of the world. The cognitive approach emphasizes the importance of thoughts and other mental processes but also focuses on how the brain operates – how it takes in information, processes information, and uses information to modify behavior. Psychologist William James, as early as 1890, used this approach to try to understand how learning and memory help people get along in the world. 

I just need the Using information from the passage, create one (1) Category study card, two (2) Definition study cards, and two (2) Question study cards. please read the passage above and please create one (1) Category study card, two (2) Definition study cards, and two (2) Question study cards.

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