Earth’s Oceans1. Define the following in your own words:ocean water upwellingocean water downwellingwestern boundary currentocean gyreglobal ocean conveyor belt (thermohaline circulation)tsunami2. Earth’s oceans are characterized by salinity, temperature, and density. Briefly explain the main factor that causes differences in temperature at the SURFACE of the oceans.http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/temp.html&edu=high3. What is the average salinity of ocean (sea) water in either percent or ppt (parts per thousand)? Please put the unit of measurement (percent, ppt) after the number.4. What makes ocean water salty? (Where does the “salt” come from?)http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/salinity.html&edu=high– especially 4th paragraph5. Why doesn’t ocean (sea) water get more salty as time goes on?6. Briefly explain 4 factors that cause differences in salinity at the SURFACE of the oceans.http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/salinity.html&edu=high7. Why do the densities of ocean waters change with DEPTH?http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/density.html&edu=high8. In the deep ocean, what causes ocean water to circulate (move)? In other words, what causes ocean water to sink and then circulate (move) in the deep parts of the oceans? Here is a model of the ocean thermohaline circulation system, also called the “global conveyor belt”: http://www.learner.org/courses/envsci/visual/visual.php?shortname=thermohaline_circulation9. At the surface, what causes ocean water to move?10. In oceans, how do these 3 layers differ from each other? You can just describe each layer (including approximate thickness) using your textbook or the websites lsited below:surface zone (also called mixed layer)boundary layer (includes thermocline layer, halocline layer, and pycnocline layer)http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/temp.html&edu=highhttp://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/salinity_depth.html&edu=highhttp://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/density.html&edu=highdeep zone11. What is the Coriolis effect? To see an example of how the Coriolis effect seems to influence movements, go to the webpage listed below and look at the short video at the bottom of the page. The website is a very, very good tutorial on weather (click on the merry-go-round to see the Coriolis effect).http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/fw/crls.rxml12. What is depth of the deepest part of the ocean yet found, the Marianis trench near Guam, western Pacific?13. What is the average depth of continental shelves, which are under ocean water? For an example, see:http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/04etta/background/profile/profile.html14. Why are there 2 high tides and 2 low tides each day in an ocean?15. What makes waves break?Earth’s Atmosphere16. Define the following in your own words:aerosolwater vaporlatent heatheat capacityinsolation17. List the 5 variables that are used to characterize the atmosphere (these are properties of the atmosphere).18. List the approximate percentage of each gas in our atmosphere:nitrogen (N2)oxygen (O2)argon (Ar)carbon dioxide (CO2)methane (CH4)nitrous oxide (N2)ozone (O3)19. Excluding the thermosphere, about how thick is Earth’s atmosphere? (Is this thicker or thinner than the radius of the Earth from the core to the crust?)20. The atmosphere can be divided into layers based on temperature changes. Describe or draw the structure of the atmosphere in relation to temperature. Include the approximate temperatures and an indication of how temperature changes in each layer (does the temperature increase, decrease, or stay the same for each layer). If you make a drawing, make sure you label it.21. In the troposphere, why is the air warmer near the planet’s surface than higher up in the troposphere?22. How does ozone make the temperature of the stratosphere increase (instead of decrease)?23. What happens to air pressure in the atmosphere as you move up in the atmosphere?24. Which substance on our planet moves the moves the largest amount of energy (as heat) as it changes from liquid to solid to gas to liquid, or solid, etc.?Ocean and Atmosphere Interaction on a Large Scale: El Nino, La Nina, and “Normal” weather eventsGeneral information on El Nino and related phenomena can be found in your textbook and at:http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/nino-home.html1. In the space below, briefly explain each of the feature below as they exist during a normal year in the tropical Pacific region between South America and Indonesia. Check out your textbook (great resource on this topic) or the website below, especially starting in the 4th paragraph:http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/el-nino-story.htmla. direction of winds (Tradewinds)b. direction of surface water currents (they move same direction as the winds because the winds push the water at the surface)c. upwelling of cold waterd. downwelling of warm watere. approximate temperatures of the sea surface2. In the space below, briefly explain each of the feature below as they exist during an El Nino year in the tropical Pacific region between South America and Indonesia.a. direction of winds (Tradewinds)b. direction of surface water currents c. upwelling of cold waterd. downwelling of warm watere. approximate temperatures of the sea surface3. In the space below, briefly explain each of the feature below as they exist during a La Nina year in the tropical Pacific region between South America and Indonesia. Here is some information on La Nina:http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/la-nina-story.htmla. direction of winds (Tradewinds)b. direction of surface water currents c. upwelling of cold waterd. downwelling of warm watere. approximate temperatures of the sea surface4. Briefly, what are the main differences between “normal” years and El Nino and La Nina years? Here is a summary of data that show differences in sea surface temperatures:http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/la-nina-pacific.html5. Briefly describe how the data for these events were collected? (See http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/proj_over/map_array.html and the 3rd paragraph of http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/el-nino-story.html.)6. Go to the website: http://www.elnino.noaa.gov. The map at the top of the page shows the changes in ocean temperatures in the El Nino region over the last 2-3 months. “SST” means “sea surface temperatures”. EXPLANATION OF WHAT THIS MAP SHOWS:At the equator, the westward push of the tradewinds near the equator is pushing the surface water, which is relatively warm, towards the west. This allows the water underneath, which is cooler, to rise up (“upwell”) and then it, too, gets caught up in the westward-moving currents.a. What do the colors on the map at the top of the page represent?b. The map at the bottom of the page does not show the *actual* ocean temperature, it shows how **different** the ocean temperature is from its average (normal). The legend at the bottom of thepage is the **difference** in temperature from normal. This difference is called the temperature anomaly. In the map at the bottom of the page, examine the water near the equator. Is the water at the equator:at normal temperatures,below normal temperatures, above normal tempertatures7. Now look at a close-up of that area of the equator (between South America and Indonesia). Click on “What’s Happening Today?” at the left hand side of this page and you should end up at “El Nino theme Page” (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/1997.html).The small map on the upper right side of the page shows several different types of data. Click on the map to enlarge it (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/jsdisplay/). Click on it again to enlarge (probably opens in a new window). The data represented in these maps are:latitude (numbers at top of maps, ex: 140 degrees E)longitude (numbers on left side of maps, ex: 5 degrees N)wind direction (arrows point to direction wind is blowing)wind speed (the arrow under the top map shows the length of arrow for wind of 10 meters/second;size of arrows indicate speed, the larger arrows indicate greater speeds)actual temperature of water at the surface (colors in upper map)temperature anomaly in the area (colors in lower map)wind spind anomaly (arrows on the bottom map)This data is up-to-date as of the date on the bottom of the map. The data are reported essentially as they are collected–they are “real-time” data.a. Interpret the data in this map and determine which event is activea “normal” periodan El Nino perioda La Nina periodb. What interpretation does NOAA (the USA agency that monitors this and also gives us the National Weather Service) interprets the data as, go to the website below and click on one of the documents on the page:http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_monitoring/enso_advisory/index.shtml.Circle NOAA’s interpretation:a “normal” periodan El Nino perioda La Nina period(Did your interpretation agree with NOAA’s?)
Earth’s Oceans1. Define the following in your own words:ocean water upwellingIt is the movement of cooler and denser water which is rich in nutrients towards the oceansurface, thereby replacing…
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