Describe the structure of a phylogenetic tree and how it relates different groups of organisms. Define homology and homoplasy. Give example of…

1. Describe the structure of a phylogenetic tree and how it relates different groups of organisms. 2. Define homology and homoplasy. 3. Give example of binomial nomenclature. 4. Write a species name with proper formatting. 5. Describe the hierarchical classification of organisms. 6. Define phylogeny. 7. Define phylogenetic tree. 8. Discuss how homologous traits help scientists group organisms. 9. Define convergent evolution. 10. Provide examples of homologous and analogous traits. 11. Identify parts of a phylogenetic tree (eg, node, branch, tip). 12. Discuss what the parts of a phylogenetic tree represent. 13. Identify which organisms are most closely related using a phylogenetic tree. 14. Identify phylogenetic trees that show the same evolutionary relationships. 15. Define and identify monophyletic, polyphyletic, and paraphyletic groups using phylogenetic trees. 16. Discuss why synapomorphies help group organisms. 17. Explain how similar traits arise independently in species that are only distantly related. 18. Describe at least one way phylogenetic analyses are used by scientists

1. Summarize the shared characteristics that define living organisms. 2. Define and give examples of population, community, ecosystem, biosphere. 3. Describe the conditions that are thought to have existed when primordial molecules first came together to form interacting systems. 4. Describe the history of life on earth, noting important evolutionary steps and the (VERY APPROXIMATE) point on the timeline at which occurred. 5. Use a phylogenetic tree to illustrate the evolutionary history of a set of organisms. 6. Explain how DNA, genes, and the genome are related to one another. 7. Explain how proteins are related to an organism’s genome. 8. Name the levels of biological organization and discuss the complexity found at each successive level. 9. Compare and contrast the three major domains of life. 10. Diagram the tree of life for the three major domains and explain the significance of its divisions and branch points. Chapter 1 + Chapter 22 11. Describe the processes of natural selection and explain how they lead to adaptations and a diversity of animal species. 12. Explain why the genetic makeup of populations rather than individuals is central to evolution. 13. Define adaptation and explain how this relates to survival, reproduction, and natural selection. 14. Diagram how one population of organisms could eventually become two populations and eventually two species.

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