Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Seismic Hydrocarbon Exploration. With the continued depletion of the reservoirs, the petroleum industry explores even deeper and in even more challenging enviro

Complete 5 pages APA formatted article: Seismic Hydrocarbon Exploration. With the continued depletion of the reservoirs, the petroleum industry explores even deeper and in even more challenging environments using three common methods of exploration of hydrocarbons which include geological, geophysical and drilling methods. Geological studies on a prospective reservoir area call for knowledge on the region’s tectonics and geology in the establishment of traps or structures, source rocks, seal rocks or reservoir rocks. The geophysical methods have been cited by Reynolds (2011) as the most common methods and encompass seismic, gravity and magnetic surveys. Finally, the minimally used geochemical surveys method of exploration involves the collection of soil samples from the suspect area followed by laboratory testing for bacteria-formed microgas. The presence of non-bacterial gases would also be tested to identify the existence of abnormally high-level concentration of gases which would call for further evaluation of seismic data. These methods would be applied in both offshore and onshore situations.

Of importance in this paper though would be the seismic method of hydrocarbon exploration which as edited by Davies et al. (2007) has been the cornerstone of hydrocarbon exploration. This method rides on the Physics of the earth principles with the use of seismic energy to probe below the earth’s surface basically as an aid in exploring for the presence of hydrocarbon deposits. Near or at the surface of the earth, this method would be used to measure the elastic features of the subsurface and identify any variations in these features, with variations pointing out at changes in lithology or pore fluids. This method could also be used for other purposes, notably archaeology, engineering, and scientific studies.

Just like in any other hydrocarbon exploration process, seismic exploration for hydrocarbon-bearing rocks begins with desk studies to review and identify viable sedimentary basins (Jahn, Cook & Graham 2008). Aerial photography could be employed to give information on the formation of promising landscapes like anticlines and faults.

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