Chapter 22: The Respiratory System Due:59pm on Sunday, May 8, 2011 Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions.

Chapter 22: The Respiratory SystemDue: 11:59pm on Sunday, May 8, 2011Note: You will receive no credit for late submissions. To learn more, read your instructor’s Grading Policy[Switch to Standard Assignment View]Close Grading Policy [x]Grading PolicyNumber of answer attempts per question is: 2You gain credit for:Correctly answering a question in a PartYou lose credit for:Exhausting all attempts or giving up on a question in a PartIncorrectly answering a question in a PartLate submissions: receive no credit.Grading of Incorrect Answers before the last attempt:You lose 50% credit per incorrect answer on multiple-choice and true/false questions.You lose 3% credit per incorrect answer on questions that are not multiple-choice or true/false.Chapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 34 Part A The larynx contains ________. lateral cartilage ridges called false vocal folds the thyroid cartilage a cricoid cartilage also called the Adam’s apple an upper pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 38 Part A Which of the choices below is not a role of the pleura? allows the lungs to inflate and deflate without friction aids in blood flow to and from the heart because the heart sits between the lungs helps divide the thoracic cavity into three chambers helps limit the spread of local infections Answer not displayedChapter 22 Matching Question 1-5 Part A Use the figure to match the following.Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.ANSWER: Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 2 Part A The olfactory mucosal lining of the nasal cavity contains the receptors for the sense of smell. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 13 Part A The epiglottis is a smooth muscle that covers the glottis during swallowing. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 53 Part A Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________. abundant blood supply to nasal mucosa porous structure of turbinate bones action of the epiglottis ciliated mucous lining in the nose Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 37 Part A Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung? middle lobe cardiac notch horizontal fissure oblique fissure Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 3 Part A The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________. protect the lungs from bacterial invasion trap dust and other debris replace mucus in the alveoli secrete surfactant Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 51 Part A The factors responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall are ________. the smooth muscles of the lung the visceral pleurae and the changing volume of the lungs the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles alone surface tension from pleural fluid and negative pressure in the pleural cavity Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 3 Part A Jane had been suffering through a severe cold and was complaining of a frontal headache and a dull, aching pain at the side of her face. What regions are likely to become sites of secondary infection following nasal infection? The paranasal sinuses The oral cavity and larynx The larynx and trachea The oral cavity The lower respiratory tract Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 41 Part A Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange? alveolar ducts alveoli alveolar sacs respiratory bronchioles Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 6 Part A Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea? pseudostratified ciliated epithelium cartilage rings surface tension of water surfactant Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 14 Part A Valsalva’s maneuver involves closing off the glottis (preventing expiration) while contracting the muscles of expiration, causing an increase in intra-abdominal pressure. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 42 Part A The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________. respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacs respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts atria and alveolar sacs alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 3 Part A The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 7 Part A While dining out in a restaurant, a man suddenly chokes on a piece of meat. The waitress is also a student nurse and comes to the man’s aid. She asks him if he can talk. The man responds by shaking his head no and grabbing at his neck. What is the significance of the man’s inability to talk? As the man is unable to speak, this indicates that the food has become lodged between his vocal cords in the larynx. As the man is unable to speak, this indicates that the food has become lodged in the esophagus immediately behind the larynx, and is compressing the larynx and preventing air from moving into his trachea. As the man is unable to speak, this indicates that he is choking on a piece of food that suddenly closed off the glottis in the larynx. There is no significance to the man’s inability to talk. The important sign was the grabbing of his neck. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 2 Part A The loudness of a person’s voice depends on the ________. length of the vocal folds force with which air rushes across the vocal folds strength of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles thickness of vestibular folds Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 46 Part A The nose serves all the following functions except ________. warming and humidifying the air as the initiator of the cough reflex cleansing the air as a passageway for air movement Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 17 Part A The parietal pleura lines the thoracic wall. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 15 Part A Smoking diminishes ciliary action and eventually destroys the cilia. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 16 Part A Tracheal obstruction is life threatening. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 26 Part A Under certain conditions, the vocal folds act as a sphincter that prevents air passage. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 4 Part A The lungs are perfused by two circulations: the pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is for oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures (tissue). True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 33 Part A Select the correct statement about the pharynx. The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx. The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx. The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx. The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 2 Part A While having a physical examination, a young male informed his doctor that at age 8 he had lobar pneumonia and pleurisy in his left lung. The physician decided to measure his VC. How would the doctor measure the VC? Using a ventilator Perform blood tests to determine the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide present Using a spirometer Using a respirator Perform blood tests to determine the level of oxygen present Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 30 Part A The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________. expiratory reserve vital capacity reserve air inspiratory reserve Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 8 Part A The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ________. Boyle’s law Charles’ law Dalton’s law Henry’s law Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 10 Part A Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________. humidifying the air before it enters warming the air before it enters interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variations Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 23 Part A Tidal volume is air ________. exchanged during normal breathing forcibly expelled after normal expiration inhaled after normal inspiration remaining in the lungs after forced expiration Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 7 Part A Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________. difference between atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure pressure within the pleural cavity pressure within the alveoli of the lungs negative pressure in the intrapleural space Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 26 Part A The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ________. inspiratory capacity tidal volume vital capacity expiratory reserve volume Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 7 Part A During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 4 Part A Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is greater than the pressure in the atmosphere. equal to the pressure in the atmosphere. less than the pressure in the atmosphere. greater than the intra-alveolar pressure. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 44 Part A Inspiratory capacity is ________. functional residual capacity the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration the total amount of exchangeable air air inspired after a tidal inhalation Answer not displayedChapter 22 Matching Question 6-9 Part A Use the figure to match the following.Drag the appropriate labels to their respective targets.ANSWER: Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 55 Part A Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation. Surfactant helps increase alveolar surface tension. As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required. A lung that is less elastic will require less muscle action to perform adequate ventilation. A decrease in compliance causes an increase in ventilation. Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 8 Part A The alveolar ventilation rate is the best index of effective ventilation. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 22 Part A Which of the following determines lung compliance? flexibility of the thoracic cage alveolar surface tension airway opening muscles of inspiration Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 6 Part A Intrapleural pressure is normally about 4 mm Hg less than the pressure in the alveoli. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 18 Part A The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 35 Part A Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon? internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract diaphragm would contract, external intercostals would relax diaphragm contracts, internal intercostals would relax external intercostals would contract and diaphragm would relax Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 5 Part A Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors? combined amount of CO2 in the blood and air in the alveoli the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid the negative feedback of expansion fibers used during inspiration and the outward pull of surface tension due to surfactant the expansion of respiratory muscles that were contracted during inspiration and the lack of surface tension on the alveolar wall Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 17 Part A Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs? compliance and transpulmonary pressures the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 54 Part A Which of the following is not possible? Pressure gradient equals gas flow over resistance. Gas flow equals pressure gradient over resistance. Resistance equals pressure gradient over gas flow. The amount of gas flowing in and out of the alveoli is directly proportional to the difference in pressure or pressure gradient between the external atmosphere and the alveoli. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 21 Part A Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli? Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli. Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles. Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter. Proportionally, smooth muscle decreases uniformly. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 1 Part A Timothy has been having difficulty breathing since he had pneumonia last month. Recently he had severe pain in his chest and back, and his breathing was extremely irregular. The doctor at the emergency room told him that one of the lobes of his lung had collapsed. How could this happen? Timothy suffered from a pulmonary embolism, following his recovery from pneumonia. Timothy was suffering a second bout of pneumonia, which was currently localized in a single lobe of the lung. Timothy was suffering from pleurisy, due to the excess fluid left in his lungs following his case of pneumonia. Timothy suffered atelectasis, most likely caused by the bronchiole becoming plugged following the pneumonia, then collapsing due to the alveoli absorbing all of the air. Timothy was suffering a severe asthma attack, triggered by his recovery from pneumonia. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 9 Part A The statement, “in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture” paraphrases ________. Dalton’s law Boyle’s law Henry’s law Charles’ law Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 32 Part A Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________. filtration osmosis active transport diffusion Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 24 Part A Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement? molecular weight and size of the gas molecule the temperature solubility in water partial pressure gradient Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 23 Part A Dalton’s law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 20 Part A Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2? external respiration internal respiration pulmonary ventilation blood pH adjustment Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 1 Part A Ventilation perfusion coupling means that more blood flows past functional alveoli than past nonfunctional alveoli. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 11 Part A For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________. at least 3 micrometers thick between 5 and 6 micrometers thick 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 5 Part A After a long scuba diving session on a Caribbean reef, Carl boards a plane to Dallas. He begins to feel pain in his elbow on the flight back to Dallas. What is happening to him and why? Carl is experiencing the bends because the plane is not pressurized to sea level, further reducing the pressure holding the gases in suspension. Carl is experiencing the bends because a lot of gas was forced into his bloodstream during the dive, and there was not sufficient time to decompress before he boarded the plane. Carl is experiencing oxygen toxicity because a lot of gas was forced into his bloodstream during the dive, and there was not sufficient time to decompress before he boarded the plane. Carl is experiencing oxygen toxicity because the plane is not pressurized to sea level, further reducing the pressure holding the gases in suspension. Carl is experiencing the bends because a lot of gas was forced into his bloodstream during the dive, and there was not sufficient time to decompress before he boarded the plane; as the plane is not pressurized to sea level, this reduced the pressure holding the gases in suspension. Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 24 Part A Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 5 Part A Changes in arterial pH can modify respiration rate and rhythm even when carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are normal. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 12 Part A Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 36 Part A How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood? chemically combined with the heme portion of hemoglobin chemically combined with the amino acids of hemoglobin as carbaminohemoglobin in the red blood cells as carbonic acid in the plasma as the bicarbonate ion in the plasma after first entering the red blood cells Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 39 Part A Which of the following incorrectly describes mechanisms of CO2 transport? 7–10% of CO2 is dissolved directly into the plasma as bicarbonate ion in plasma attached to the heme part of hemoglobin 20% of CO2 is carried in the form of carbaminohemoglobin Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 58 Part A Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation? nitric oxide carbon dioxide temperature BPG Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 25 Part A Possible causes of hypoxia include ________. too little oxygen in the atmosphere taking several rapid deep breaths obstruction of the esophagus getting very cold Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 31 Part A Which statement about CO2 is incorrect? More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs. CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood. Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH. Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 50 Part A Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin? partial pressure of carbon dioxide number of red blood cells partial pressure of oxygen temperature Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 15 Part A In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________. only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 12 Part A With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________. decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 56 Part A Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood: A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal. During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently. Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity. During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning to the lungs carries one molecule of O2. Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 11 Part A The largest amount of carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream in the form of carbonic anhydrase. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 22 Part A As carbon dioxide enters systemic blood, it causes more oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin (the Haldane effect), which in turn allows more CO2 to combine with hemoglobin and more bicarbonate ion to be generated (the Bohr effect). True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 21 Part A Strong emotions and pain acting through the limbic system activate sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus, thus modulating respiratory rate and depth by sending signals to the respiratory centers. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 13 Part A The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________. loss of oxygen in tissues pH (acidosis) pH (alkalosis) increase of carbon dioxide Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 28 Part A Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing? arterial Po2 below 60 mm Hg arterial pH resulting from CO2 retention rising blood pressure rising carbon dioxide levels Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 8 Part A How will the lungs compensate for an acute rise in the partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood? Respiratory rate will decrease. Respiratory depth will decrease and respiratory rate will increase. Respiratory depth will decrease. Respiratory rate will increase. Respiratory depth and respiratory rate will decrease. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 29 Part A Respiratory control centers are located in the ________. medulla and pons midbrain and medulla pons and midbrain upper spinal cord and medulla Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 43 Part A Gas emboli may occur because a ________. person breathes pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber diver holds his breath upon ascent person holds his breath too long pilot holds her breath upon descent Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 49 Part A Select the correct statement about the neural mechanisms of respiratory control. The dorsal respiratory group neurons depolarize in a rhythmic way to establish the pattern of breathing. The ventral respiratory group is contained within the pons. The pontine respirator group (PRG) continuously stimulates the medulla to provide inspiratory drive. The pons is thought to be instrumental in the smooth transition from inspiration to expiration. Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 27 Part A Apneustic breathing is characterized by prolonged inspirations. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 45 Part A Which center is located in the pons? pacemaker neuron center pontine respirator group (PRG) expiratory inspiratory Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 14 Part A Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration. the ventral respiratory group the chemoreceptor center the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus Broca’s center Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 40 Part A Factors that influence the rate and depth of breathing include ________. thalamic control composition of alveolar air voluntary cortical control stretch receptors in the alveoli Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 20 Part A The Hering-Breuer reflex is a potentially dangerous response that may cause overinflation of the lung. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 52 Part A The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________. concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes temperature is lower at higher altitudes concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudes basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 18 Part A Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated? decrease in lactic acid levels psychic stimuli simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center proprioceptors Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 10 Part A Labored breathing is termed dyspnea. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 19 Part A Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer? adenocarcinoma squamous cell carcinoma Kaposi’s sarcoma small cell carcinoma Answer not displayedChapter 22 True/False Question 9 Part A In chronic bronchitis, mucus production is decreased and this leads to the inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosal lining of the bronchial tree. True False Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 57 Part A Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation? tuberculosis emphysema pneumonia coryza Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 9 Part A Why is a patient with tuberculosis often noncompliant with treatment? Due to the psychological side effects of the antibiotic used, the patient may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better. TB infection causes damage to the nervous system, resulting in changes in personality and judgment. Due to the time length of treatment, the patient may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better. Due to the physiological side effects of the antibiotic used, the patient may stop taking the medication when they start to feel better. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 6 Part A A patient was admitted to the hospital with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. His PO2 was 55 and PCO2 was 65. A new resident orders 54% oxygen via the venturi mask. One hour later, after the oxygen was placed, the nurse finds the patient with no respiration or pulse. She calls for a Code Blue and begins cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Why did the patient stop breathing? The sudden increase in oxygen in his body caused oxygen toxicity, generating huge amounts of free radicals, resulting in profound CNS disturbances, coma, and death. The increase in oxygen in his body caused hypoventilation to the extent that breathing was no longer visible to the nurse. His arterial PCO2 chemoreceptors had become unresponsive. Declining PO2 levels now act as the stimulus. Increased PO2 levels will prevent this stimulus, and breathing will cease. The high level of oxygen in his body caused hypocapnia, which resulted in an unbalancing of his body’s pH, causing his muscular and nervous systems to fail. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 4 Part A A smoker sees his doctor because he has a persistent cough and is short of breath after very little exertion. What diagnosis will the doctor make, and what can the person expect in the short term if he does not quit smoking? The person is suffering from chronic bronchitis, which causes the dyspnea and coughing. If he does not stop smoking, he can expect frequent pulmonary infections, more coughing, progressively worse dyspnea. The person is suffering from chronic bronchitis, which causes the dyspnea and coughing. If he does not stop smoking, he can expect hypoxemia, CO2 retention, and lung cancer. The person is suffering from emphysema, which causes the dyspnea and coughing. If he does not stop smoking, he can expect frequent pulmonary infections, more coughing, progressively worse dyspnea. The person is suffering from dyspnea. If he does not stop smoking, he can expect frequent pulmonary infections, more coughing, hypoxemia, emphysema, and/or lung cancer. The person is suffering from emphysema, which causes the dyspnea and coughing. If he does not stop smoking, he can expect hypoxemia, CO2 retention, and lung cancer. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Clinical Application Question 10 Part A John has undergone surgery and has developed pneumonia. He also has a history of emphysema. Which assessment parameters would the nurse expect to find? Hypoxemia, chronic mucus production, productive cough, and use of accessory muscles to assist breathing Dyspnea, hypoxemia, use of accessory muscles to assist breathing, productive cough, and “crackle” sounds during breathing Chronic mucus production, productive cough, and dyspnea Pulmonary infections, chronic mucus production, inflammation and fibrosis of the mucosa Loss of lung elasticity, dyspnea, inflammation of the mucosa, “crackle” sounds during breathing, and productive cough Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 47 Part A A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing. However, the respiratory system is developed enough for survival by ________. 28 weeks 17 weeks 36 weeks 24 weeks Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 16 Part A Which of the following statements is incorrect? The chest wall becomes more rigid with age. Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants. Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing. During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 27 Part A Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange? Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta. Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus. Respiratory exchanges are not necessary. Because the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange. Answer not displayedChapter 22 Multiple Choice Question 48 Part A Which of the following statements is true regarding the respiratory rate of a newborn? The respiratory rate of a newborn is approximately 30 respirations per minute. The respiratory rate of a newborn is slow. The respiratory rate of a newborn varies between male and female infants. The respiratory rate of a newborn is, at its highest rate, approximately 40-80 respirations per minute. Answer not displayedScore Summary:Your score on this assignment is 0%.You received 0 out of a possible total of 94 points. [ Print ]







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