According to the declaration, human studies “should be based on adequately performed laboratory and animal

According to the declaration, human studies “should be based on adequately performed laboratory and animal

experimentation and on . . . knowledge of the scientific literature.”12 Investigators must supply this information to enable the institutional review board to make an informed decision (A. Lockwood, 2004).

Because it is unethical to perform studies of poor scientific quality, this area of inquiry bridges the closely related elements of ethics and science. Information about methods, variables measured, statistical tests (A. Lockwood, 2004).

Power analysis is to define the proper size of study group(s) is an essential part of the design. If too many participants are enrolled, the excess will be subjected to unnecessary risk. If too few are enrolled, the investigator risks erroneous acceptance of the null hypothesis. Underpowered studies are inconclusive, and all participants in an underpowered study will have been exposed to risk unnecessarily. All of these studies were underpowered (A. Lockwood, 2004).

Please explain this statement?


Human Testing of Pesticides: Ethical and Scientific Considerations, Alan H. Lockwood, MD 2004 Retrieve from

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