10 THE RARE EARTH: How RARE IS EARTH-LIKE LIFE? GOALS I Interpret graphs relating luminosity, stellar mass, and main-sequence lifetime Investigate

answering this questions, especially marking graphs, plese see below attached file.10 THE RARE EARTH:How RARE IS EARTH-LIKE LIFE? GOALSI Interpret graphs relating luminosity, stellar mass, and main-sequence lifetimeInvestigate the time frame for complex life to develop on EarthI Reason about how stellar abundance can be used to approximate the rarity of Earth-likeplanets with complex life in our galaxy PART A: How OLD, How LUMINOUS, AND How MASSIVE SHOULD A STARBE To SUPPORT COMPLEX LIFE? The Rare Earth hypothesis suggests that Earth-like planets containing complex (multi-celiular) life aswe know it are probably quite rare in the Milky Way Galaxy. Scientists generally agree that Earthformed about 4.5 billion years ago, yet complex life has existed on Earth for only about the last 500million years. It is still unclear exactly what events led up to the emergence of complex life on thisplanet. A particularly important condition that scientists believe to be necessary for the developmentof complex life is a long period of relatively stable climate resulting fiom a steady planetary orbit atthe correct distance from an appropriate type of star. Let’s begin our search for an appropriate star by looking at the characteristics of our Sun that make itpossible for complex life to flourish on Earth. During the activity, the symbol (5) will be used toidentify characteristics of our Sun. The Sun is a G-type star in the main-sequence phase of its life.This means that it is engaged in the stable conversion of hydrogen into helium by nuclear fusion in itscore. The Sun radiates energy mostly in the form of visible light. The measure of a star‘s radiationenergy is called its luminosity. Although brighter in the past, the Sun has been emittingapproximately the same amount of radiation for about 5 billion years, making it about half-waythrough its entire main sequence lifetime of about i0 billion years. We will investigate the portion ofthe Rare Earth hypothesis that considers how the lifetime, mass and the luminosity of a star caninfluence the possibility of complex life developing on an orbiting planet. You will also calculate thefraction of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, that fall within a particular stellar mass range which couldallow for the development of complex life. Examine Graph 1 at the end of the activity. Graph 1 shows how the main sequence lifetime of a staris related to the star’s mass (dotted line). The graph also shows how the star’s luminosity is related toits mass (solid line). Refer to Graph 1 to answer the following questions: 1. Which line (curve) on the graph shows how main sequence lifetime is related to stellar mass?(Note: It may be helpful to label this curve for future reference.) 2. Which line (curve) on the graph shows how stellar luminosity is related to stellar mass? (Note: Itmay be helpfiil to label this curve for future reference.) 3. How does main sequence lifetime change as stellar mass increases? Does it increase or decrease? hmhwcuanmolafl-mafiamrflpdfl Prather. Offerdahl, and Sister1 23

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