1. Which of the following is not an acid-base neutralization reaction? (3 points)
NH3 + HCl yields NH4Cl
H2 + Br2 yields 2HBr
HCl + HBr yields H2 + ClBr
2HBr + Ca(OH)2 yields CaBr2 + 2H2O
2.Which of the following represents the salt produced when the base magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH) 2, reacts with strong hydrochloric acid (HCl)? (3 points)
H2O and MgCl2
3. Which of the following would decrease the pH level of an acidic solution? (3 points)
adding a base to the acid
increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions
decrease the concentration of hydronium ions
increasing the number of hydrogen ions
4.In the following reaction, which substance is acting as the Brønsted-Lowry acid? (3 points)
NH3 + H2O yields NH4+ + OH-
5. If 35.5 mL of 0.23 M HCl is required to completely neutralize 20.0 mL of NH3, what is the concentration of the NH3 solution? Show all of the work needed to solve this problem. (2 points)
HCl + NH3 yields NH4Cl
6. What is the pH of a solution with a concentration of 1.3 × 10-3 molar H3O+? Show, or explain, the work used to solve this problem. (2 points)
7. Explain, in a step by step procedure, how you would use titration to determine the concentration of a calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution. (4 points)
8. A chemical system at equilibrium is referred to as dynamic because the (3 points)
rates of the forward and reverse reactions continue changing.
forward and reverse reactions continue reacting.
value of the equilibrium constant (K) changes.
concentrations of the components continue changing.
9. In a chemical reaction, it is determined that the equilibrium constant is 0.213. Which of the following is a correct statement regarding this reaction? (2 points)
There are more products than reactants at equilibrium.
The reaction will continue until no reactant remains.
There are more reactants than products at equilibrium.
The reaction has stopped completely.
10. Explain, in terms of particles, concentration, and reaction rate, what you expect to happen when methane gas (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) are sealed in a flask and reach a state of equilibrium. (2 points)
11.CH4(g) + 2H2S(g) Two arrows stacked on top of each other. The top arrow points to the right. The bottom arrow points to the left. CS2(g) + 4H2(g)
Predict what will happen to the ammonia equilibrium system if hydrogen gas (H2) is added in the following reaction. (2 points)
N2(g) + 3H2(g) Two arrows stacked on top of each other. The top arrow points to the right. The bottom arrow points to the left. 2NH3(g)
The equilibrium shifts to the left.
The reaction reaches completion.
The equilibrium remains the same.
The equilibrium shifts to the right.
12. In the equilibrium system below, which of the following changes would cause the equilibrium position to shift to the right? (2 points)
13. Two arrows stacked on top of each other. The top arrow points to the right. The bottom arrow points to the left. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) delta H = +197 kJ/mol
decrease the temperature
increase the volume
add more O2 gas
add a catalyst
14. For the reaction below, describe the temperature and pressure conditions that would produce the highest yield for the forward reaction. Explain your answer in terms of Le Châtelier’s principle. (2 points)
15. N2(g) + 3H2(g) Two arrows stacked on top of each other. The top arrow points to the right. The bottom arrow points to the left. 2NH3(g) delta H = -92 kJ/mol
16Which of the following is not an oxidation-reduction reaction? (2 points)
Ca + 2HCl yields CaCl2 + H2
H2 + Cl2 yields 2HCl
NaCl + LiNO3 yields NaNO3 + LiCl
2CO + 2NO yields 2CO2 + N2
17. In the equation below, which of the following is true? (2 points)
2Fe + 6HBr yields 2FeBr3 + 3H2
H2 is being reduced.
HBr is being oxidized.
Fe is the reducing agent.
FeBr3 is the oxidizing agent.
18. What is the oxidation number of each phosphorus atom (P) in the compound calcium phosphite, Ca3(PO3)2? (2 points)
19. The space shuttle’s solid rocket boosters use ammonium perchlorate and aluminum to create an explosive reaction. The unbalanced reaction can be seen below.
NH4ClO4(s) + Al(s) yields Al2O3(g) + HCl(g) + N2(g) + H2O(g)
20. Which of the following statements correctly describes this reaction? (2 points)
Chlorine is being oxidized.
Aluminum is gaining electrons.
Nitrogen is being reduced.
Aluminum is a reducing agent.
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