1. Explain the 3 ways that neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft. Then, discuss what would

1. Explain the 3 ways that neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic cleft. Then, discuss what would

happen to neurotransmitter levels if a drug were to inhibit the effectiveness of one of these mechanisms.

2. Describe a situation that might cause high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and a situation that might cause high levels of parasympathetic nervous system activity.

3. Briefly describe the structures that are considered part of the reward system, and explain generally how they interact when we experience something rewarding.

4. You are working in the ER when a patient comes in who has overdosed on heroin. She is in a semi-conscious state. There is a drug that can be given to reverse the symptoms of his overdose, but it must be able to take effect quickly and it is important that a very specific amount of the drug be administered. Which route of administration would you choose and why?

5. You are designing a drug that must be capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. What characteristics does it need to have and why?

6. You are a physician with an elderly patient who is suffering from an anxiety disorder. You would like to prescribe an anti-anxiety medication known as a benzodiazepine, but you know that elderly patients often do not metabolize these drugs very effectively. You want to ensure the patient receives an adequate dose of the drug but also want to minimize the likelihood of disruptive side effects. Would you be inclined to prescribe a higher or lower dose than normal? What is your reasoning?

7. You are prescribing a seizure medication to a patient and it is important for the drug to be effective that it reach a steady-state level. The half-life of the drug is 6 hours. If the drug is administered every 6 hours, approximately how long will it take before the drug has reached a steady-state? Explain your reasoning.

8. A chronic drinker has increased activity at GABA receptors due to their frequent alcohol consumption. Describe how their GABA receptor levels are likely to change in response to alcohol administration and explain why this is the case.

9. Imagine you have developed a new drug. Provide an example of an LD50 and ED50 that you think would be ideal for the drug to have (you can make up the doses, what is important is the relationship between the two). Explain what the therapeutic index would be and why this is ideal for your drug.

10. Define pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Give one example of each.

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